Parvo - How dangerous to a vaccinated dog?

Discussion in 'Health & Nutritional Care' started by Nik, Jun 9, 2017.

  1. Nik

    Nik Well-Known Member

    My mom just rescued a new puppy to add to her family. After bringing it home she discovered it had Parvo. Rushed it to a vet and now it is supposedly cured. To be honest I am scared to visit or see her for fear that the Parvo virus is still shedding into her home, onto her clothes etc as I know parvo can shed off a cured animal for some time after.

    Parvo is such a dangerous illness and I don't want to risk my dogs. My dogs are both vaccinated and current on vaccines. But, my understanding is that no vaccine is ever 100%.

    Should I just avoid my mom and her house for the next few months??? :/

    Am I being paranoid?

    Here is a picture of the new puppy (another rat puppy, my mom loves the teeny dogs).


    18664658_10155492223728678_339838761747462486_n.jpg

    18698462_10155492222188678_1195142638811606678_n.jpg
     
  2. Boxergirl

    Boxergirl Well-Known Member

    You aren't being paranoid. The kid says that the virus is shed for a couple of weeks after recovery and can remain in the soil for a long time. She sees a lot of parvo at the emergency clinic. They have a designated area for those dogs to potty and make sure to bleach the bottom of their shoes and change clothes before coming home, and wash hands frequently. Those are the things I'd do if you went over or your mom came to your house. And don't take your guys there. The risk is much less because they're vaccinated, but no sense taking a chance, imo.

    For a little rat dog, it's cute.
     
  3. Bailey's Mom

    Bailey's Mom Super Moderator Staff Member

    Truly Scary Stuff. Heads Up Folks, Get Your Dogs Vaccinated. And Nik, time to "face time" with your mother rather than meet up. Tell her what Boxergirl said and find some info for her for cleaning and sanitizing her home and yard.

    Boxergirl, is there a protocol for cleaning home and yard after there has been a Parvo infection?
     
  4. Nik

    Nik Well-Known Member

    Luckily I have a work conference in Texas week after next so I will be heading out of town for a week anyways (husband is sitting this one out as he has no interest in going to Texas).
     
  5. Boxergirl

    Boxergirl Well-Known Member

    I don't know that there is an actual protocol for disinfection of the yard. I know that the only readily available household chemical that kills parvo virus is bleach. I believe it's 3/4 cup bleach to a gallon of water. Not sure what that ratio works out to be. This is for non-porous surfaces but I would think that you could use this to treat areas of the yard and entryways, etc. I'm not sure how that would affect the grass and plants.

    I had a young dog walking past recently that had diarrhea all along my front sidewalk. I keep Otis, my daughter's boxer pup, for her while she works and was worried because he wasn't yet fully vaccinated and I don't vaccinate my older dogs annually for optional things. I called the clinic to ask how I should clean the sidewalk. They said the bleach solution, saturate and it must remain in contact with the surface to be disinfected for a minimum of ten minutes.
     
    Bailey's Mom likes this.
  6. Bailey's Mom

    Bailey's Mom Super Moderator Staff Member

    Great Info. I hope everyone keeps this bit of info handy. Thanks!
     
  7. marke

    marke Well-Known Member

    personally I wouldn't worry about it , it's really not that dangerous to an adult healthy dog .........some breeds of dogs really don't get it at all , my ddb don't ...... they get one parvo shot in their lives , as puppies at 12-14 weeks ........ some breeds of dogs like rotts are really susceptible , I've seen a number of pits get it ......... exposure is a natural way to acquire and keep immunity , i'm certain my dogs are exposed to it throughout their lives , they go the park regularly ............... dogs don't really die from parvo anymore , not like when it first came around , it mostly killed puppies when it first showed up ....... dogs that die from it either received no medical care , or are puppies ........ your mom's pup didn't die , I had a neo pup in 1980 that had parvo and didn't die ........ my ddb have never had parvo , I know folks that have had hundreds of ddb and never had one get parvo .... jmo
     
  8. Bailey's Mom

    Bailey's Mom Super Moderator Staff Member

    With thanks to Wikipedia:



    Canine parvovirus
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    This article is about canine parvovirus type 2. For canine parvovirus type 1, see canine minute virus.
    Canine parvovirus 2
    [​IMG]
    Electron micrograph of canine parvovirus
    Virus classification
    Group: Group II (ssDNA)
    Family: Parvoviridae
    Subfamily: Parvovirinae
    Genus: Protoparvovirus
    Species: Canine parvovirus 2

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats. The current consensus is that the feline panleukopenia mutated into CPV2. Parvo is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their feces. Vaccines can prevent this infection, but mortality can reach 91% in untreated cases. Treatment often involves veterinary hospitalization. Canine parvovirus may infect other mammals; however, it will not infect humans.[1]



    Contents
    [1Signs


    Signs[edit]
    Dogs that develop the disease show signs of the illness within 3 to 7 days. The signs may include lethargy, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea (usually bloody). Generally, the first sign of CPV is lethargy. Secondary signs are a loss of appetite or diarrhea followed by vomiting. Diarrhea and vomiting result in dehydration that upsets the electrolyte balance and this may affect the dog critically. Secondary infections occur as a result of the weakened immune system. Because the normal intestinal lining is also compromised, blood and protein leak into the intestines leading to anemia and loss of protein, and endotoxins escaping into the bloodstream, causing endotoxemia. Dogs have a distinctive odor in the later stages of the infection. The white blood cell level falls, further weakening the dog. Any or all of these factors can lead to shock and death.[2]

    Diagnosis[edit]
    Diagnosis is made through detection of CPV2 in the feces by either an ELISA or a hemagglutination test, or by electron microscopy. PCR has become available to diagnose CPV2, and can be used later in the disease when potentially less virus is being shed in the feces that may not be detectable by ELISA.[3] Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other forms of enteritis. Parvovirus, however, is more serious and the presence of bloody diarrhea, a low white blood cell count, and necrosis of the intestinal lining also point more towards parvovirus, especially in an unvaccinated dog. The cardiac form is typically easier to diagnose because the symptoms are distinct.[4]

    Treatment[edit]
    Survival rate depends on how quickly CPV is diagnosed, the age of the dog and how aggressive the treatment is. Treatment usually involves extensive hospitalization, due to the severe dehydration and damage to the intestines and bone marrow. A CPV test should be given as early as possible if CPV is suspected in order to begin early treatment and increase survival rate if the disease is found.

    Treatment ideally also consists of crystalloid IV fluids and/or colloids (e.g., Hetastarch), antinausea injections (antiemetics) such as maropitant, metoclopramide, dolasetron, ondansetron and prochlorperazine, and broad-spectrum antibiotic injections such as cefazolin/enrofloxacin, ampicillin/enrofloxacin, metronidazole, timentin, or enrofloxacin.[5] IV fluids are administered and antinausea and antibiotic injections are given subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously. The fluids are typically a mix of a sterile, balanced electrolyte solution, with an appropriate amount of B-complex vitamins, dextrose and potassium chloride. Analgesic medications can be used to counteract the intestinal discomfort caused by frequent bouts of diarrhea; however, the use of opioid analgesics can result in secondary ileus and decreased motility.

    In addition to fluids given to achieve adequate rehydration, each time the puppy vomits or has diarrhea in a significant quantity, an equal amount of fluid is administered intravenously. The fluid requirements of a patient are determined by the animal's body weight, weight changes over time, degree of dehydration at presentation and surface area.

    A blood plasma transfusion from a donor dog that has already survived CPV is sometimes used to provide passive immunity to the sick dog. Some veterinarians keep these dogs on site, or have frozen serum available. There have been no controlled studies regarding this treatment.[5] Additionally, fresh frozen plasma and human albumin transfusions can help replace the extreme protein losses seen in severe cases and help assure adequate tissue healing. However, this is controversial with the availability of safer colloids such as Hetastarch, as it will also increase the colloid osmotic pressure without the ill effect of predisposing that canine patient to future transfusion reaction.

    Once the dog can keep fluids down, the IV fluids are gradually discontinued, and very bland food slowly introduced. Oral antibiotics are administered for a number of days depending on the white blood cell count and the patient's ability to fight off secondary infection. A puppy with minimal symptoms can recover in 2 or 3 days if the IV fluids are begun as soon as symptoms are noticed and the CPV test confirms the diagnosis. If more severe, depending on treatment, puppies can remain ill from 5 days up to 2 weeks. However, even with hospitalization, there is no guarantee that the dog will be cured and survive.

    Unconventional treatments[edit]
    There have been anecdotal reports of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reducing disease severity and hospitalization time in canine parvovirus infection. The drug may limit the ability of the virus to invade the crypt cells of the small intestine and decrease gastrointestinal bacteria colonization and toxin production.[6] However, due to the viral DNA replication pattern of parvovirus and the mechanism of action of oseltamivir, this medication has not shown to improve survival rates or shorten hospitalization stay. Lastly, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω), produced in silkworm larvae using a baculovirus vector, has been demonstrated by multiple studies to be an effective treatment. However, this therapy is not currently approved in the United States.[7][8][9][10]

    An unpublished 2012 study from Colorado State University showed good results with an intensive at-home treatment using maropitant (Cerenia) and Convenia (a long acting antibiotic injection), two drugs released by Zoetis (formerly Pfizer). This treatment was based on outpatient care, and would cost $200 to $300, a fraction of the $1,500 to $3,000 that inpatient care cost. However, the more-effective care is intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. In the CSU study, survival rate for the new treatment group was 85%, compared to the 90% survival for the conventional inpatient treatment.[11] Note that the outpatient dogs received initial intravenous fluid resuscitation, and had aggressive subcutaneous fluid therapy and daily monitoring by a veterinarian.

    History[edit]
    Parvovirus CPV2 is a relatively new disease that appeared in the late 1970s. It was first recognized in 1978 and spread worldwide in one to two years.[12] The virus is very similar to feline panleukopenia (also a parvovirus); they are 98% identical, differing only in two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2.[13] It is also highly similar to mink enteritis, and the parvoviruses of raccoons and foxes.[4] It is possible that CPV2 is a mutant of an unidentified parvovirus (similar to feline parvovirus (FPV)) of some wild carnivore.[14] A strain of CPV2b (strain FP84) has been shown to cause disease in a small percentage of domestic cats, although vaccination for FPV seems to be protective.[15] CPV2, however, does not cause disease in cats and does so only mildly in mink and raccoons, and is a virus almost exclusively affecting canines.[4]

    Two more strains of canine parvovirus CPV2a and CPV2b were identified in 1979 and 1984 respectively.[14] Most cases of canine parvovirus infection are believed to be caused by these two strains, which have replaced the original strain, and the present day virus is different from the one originally discovered[4][16] although they are indistinguishable by most routine tests. A third type, CPV2c (a Glu-426 mutant), has been discovered in Italy, Vietnam, and Spain.[17]

    Pathophysiology[edit]
    There are two forms of CPV2: intestinal and cardiac. Puppies are most susceptible, but more than 80 percent of adult dogs show no symptoms.[2] With severe disease, dogs can die within 48 to 72 hours without treatment by fluids. In the more common, less severe form, mortality is about 10 percent.[13] Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, and Pit bull terriers as well as other black and tan colored dogs may be more susceptible to CPV2.[18] Along with age and breed, factors such as a stressful environment, concurrent infections with bacteria, parasites, and canine coronavirus increase a dog's risk of severe infection.[2] Dogs who catch Parvovirus usually die from the dehydration it causes or secondary infection rather than the virus itself.

    Intestinal form[edit]
    Dogs become infected through oral contact with CPV2 in feces, infected soil, or fomites that carry the virus. Following ingestion, the virus replicates in the lymphoid tissue in the throat, and then spreads to the bloodstream. From there, the virus attacks rapidly dividing cells, notably those in the lymph nodes, intestinal crypts, and the bone marrow. There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts.[19] Anaerobic bacteria that normally reside in the intestines can then cross into the bloodstream, a process known as translocation, with bacteremia leading to sepsis. The most common bacteria involved in severe cases are Clostridium, Campylobacter and Salmonella species. This can lead to a syndrome known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS leads to a range of complications such as hypercoagulability of the blood, endotoxaemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bacterial myocarditis has also been reported secondarily to sepsis.[3] Dogs with CPV are at risk of intussusception, a condition where part of the intestine prolapses into another part.[2] Three to four days following infection, the virus is shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed the virus periodically.[20] The virus is usually more deadly if the host is concurrently infested with worms or other intestinal parasites.

    Cardiac form[edit]
    This form is less common and affects puppies infected in the uterus or shortly after birth until about 8 weeks of age.[2] The virus attacks the heart muscle and the puppy often dies suddenly or after a brief period of breathing difficulty due to pulmonary edema. On the microscopic level, there are many points of necrosis of the heart muscle that are associated with mononuclear cellular infiltration. The formation of excess fibrous tissue (fibrosis) is often evident in surviving dogs. Myofibers are the site of viral replication within cells.[4] The disease may or may not be accompanied with the signs and symptoms of the intestinal form. However, this form is now rarely seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding dogs.[20]

    Even less frequently, the disease may also lead to a generalized infection in neonates and cause lesions and viral replication and attack in other tissues other than the gastrointestinal tissues and heart, but also brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, and adrenal cortex. The lining of the blood vessels are also severely affected, which lead the lesions in this region to hemorrhage.[4]

    Infection of the fetus[edit]
    This type of infection can occur when a pregnant female dog is infected with CPV2. The adult may develop immunity with little or no clinical signs of disease. The virus may have already crossed the placenta to infect the fetus. This can lead to several abnormalities. In mild to moderate cases the pups can be born with neurological abnormalities such as cerebellar hypoplasia.[21]

    Virology
    CPV2 is a non-enveloped single-stranded DNA virus. The name comes from the Latin parvus, meaning small, as the virus is only 20 to 26 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral symmetry. The genome is about 5000 nucleotides long.[22] CPV2 continues to evolve, and the success of new strains seems to depend on extending the range of hosts affected and improved binding to its receptor, the canine transferrin receptor.[23] CPV2 has a high rate of evolution, possibly due to a rate of nucleotide substitution that is more like RNA viruses such as Influenzavirus A.[24] In contrast, FPV seems to evolve only through random genetic drift.[25]

    CPV2 affects dogs, wolves, foxes, and other canids. CPV2a and CPV2b have been isolated from a small percentage of symptomatic cats and is more common than feline panleukopenia in big cats.[26]

    Previously it has been thought that the virus does not undergo cross species infection. However studies in Vietnam have shown that CPV2 can undergo minor antigenic shift and natural mutation to infect felids. Analyses of feline parvovirus (FPV) isolates in Vietnam and Taiwan revealed that more than 80% of the isolates were of the canine parvovirus type, rather than feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV).[27] CPV2 may spread to cats easier than dogs and undergo faster rates of mutation within that species.

    Variants[edit]
    There are two types of canine parvovirus called canine minute virus (CPV1) and CPV2. CPV2 causes the most serious disease and affects domesticated dogs and wild canids. There are variants of CPV type 2 called CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. The antigenic patterns of 2a and 2b are quite similar to the original CPV type 2. Variant 2c however has a unique pattern of antigenicity.[28] This has led to claims of ineffective vaccination of dogs,[29] but studies have shown that the existing CPV vaccines based on CPV type 2b, provide adequate levels of protection against CPV type 2c.[30][31]

    Prevention and decontamination[edit]
    See also: DA2PPC Vaccine
    Prevention is the only way to ensure that a puppy or dog remain healthy because the disease is extremely virulent and contagious. Appropriate vaccination should be performed starting at 7–8 weeks of age, with a booster given every 3–4 weeks until at least 16 weeks of age. Likewise, pregnant mothers should not be vaccinated as it will abort the puppies and could make the mother extremely sick. The virus is extremely hardy and has been found to survive in feces and other organic material such as soil for over 10 years. It survives extremely low and high temperatures. The only household disinfectant that kills the virus is bleach.[2] The dilute bleach solution needs to be a (1:10 ratio) to disinfect and kill parvovirus.

    Puppies are generally vaccinated in a series of doses, extending from the earliest time that the immunity derived from the mother wears off until after that passive immunity is definitely gone.[32] Older puppies (16 weeks or older) are given 3 vaccinations 3 to 4 weeks apart.[18] The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV2 has been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in the United States and has been found to be at least three years after the initial puppy series and a booster 1 year later.[33]

    A dog that successfully recovers from CPV2 generally remains contagious for up to three weeks, but it is possible they may remain contagious for up to six. Ongoing infection risk is primarily from fecal contamination of the environment due to the virus's ability to survive many months in the environment. Neighbours and family members with dogs should be notified of infected animals so that they can ensure that their dogs are vaccinated or tested for immunity. The vaccine will take up to 2 weeks to reach effective levels of immunity; the contagious individual should remain in quarantine until other animals are protected.[34]


    Conclusion: The canine parvovirus is highly contagious and affects dogs that are unvaccinated. This virus was first discovered in the early 1960’s and has spread worldwide. The canine parvovirus infects all dogs that are unvaccinated and it is most common in young dogs four months old and younger. To help prevent the spread of the canine parvovirus in young dog’s owners need to be provided with information on what the disease is, what the signs, symptoms and treatments consist of, and how to prevent this deadly virus. There are two clinical syndromes that an infected dog with the canine parvovirus can contract which are gastrointestinal enteritis and myocardial failure. The most common clinical syndrome that is seen today is the gastrointestinal enteritis syndrome, and the myocardial failure occurs in neonatal puppies infected in utero or shortly after birth and is rarely seen today due to vaccination protocols (Van Schoor). There is no cure for the canine parvo virus it is treated symptomatically. The treatments vary from in patient to outpatient therapy. In patient therapy consists of intravenous fluid therapy, oncotic support, nutrition, antiemetics, antibiotics, antiviral treatments and antiviral medications. Outpatient therapy consists of subcutaneous fluids, antiemetics and antibiotics (Veir). Prevention of the canine parvo virus starts out when canines are young. Most puppies will receive an amount of passive immunity due to the maternally derived antibody (MDA) acquired via the colostrum. MDA protects the puppy from infection during the first weeks of life (Stavisky). There are vaccination protocols for young dogs to receive the DA2PP vaccine which is the canine distemper vaccine; it consists of the Distemper virus, Canine Adenovirus type 2, Parainfluenza and the Parvovirus. This vaccine is to be given at eight, twelve and sixteen weeks of age to help prevent the canine parvovirus. The key to help all owners and canines of the prevention of this virus is to follow the recommended vaccine schedule because this is a core vaccine and it is the number one way to not contract the virus. In conclusion, the canine parvovirus is a deadly disease that affects all canines that are unvaccinated and it has become worldwide because of how easily it is spread throughout every environment.



    See also[edit]
    References[edit]
    1. Jump up^ National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Parvovirus B19 (Fifth Disease)." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/parvovirusB19/about-parvovirus.html>.
    2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Ettinger, Stephen J.; Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine (4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3.
    3. ^ Jump up to:a b Silverstein, Deborah C. (2003). Intensive Care Treatment of Severe Parvovirus Enteritis. International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium 2003.
    4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Jones, T.C.; Hunt, R.D.; King, W. (1997). Veterinary Pathology. Blackwell Publishing.
    5. ^ Jump up to:a b Macintire, Douglass K. (2008). "Treatment of Severe Parvoviral Enteritis". Proceedings of the CVC Veterinary Conference, Kansas City. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
    6. Jump up^ Macintire, Douglass K. (2006). "Treatment of Parvoviral Enteritis" (PDF). Proceedings of the Western Veterinary Conference. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
    7. Jump up^ Ishiwata K, Minagawa T, Kajimoto T (1998). "Clinical effects of the recombinant feline interferon-ω on experimental parvovirus infection in beagle dogs". J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60 (8): 911–7. doi:10.1292/jvms.60.911. PMID 9764403.
    8. Jump up^ Martin V, Najbar W, Gueguen S, Grousson D, Eun HM, Lebreux B, Aubert A (2002). "Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled challenge trial". Vet. Microbiol. 89 (2–3): 115–127. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(02)00173-6. PMID 12243889.
    9. Jump up^ De Mari K, Maynard L, Eun HM, Lebreux, B. (2003). "Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled field trial". Vet. Rec. 152 (4): 105–8. doi:10.1136/vr.152.4.105. PMID 12572939.
    10. Jump up^ Kuwabara M, Nariai Y, Horiuchi Y, Nakajima Y, Yamaguchi Y, Horioka I, Kawanabe M, Kubo Y, Yukawa M, Sakai T (2006). "Immunological effects of recombinant feline interferon-ω (KT80) administration in the dog". Microbiol. Immunol. 50 (8): 637–641. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03828.x. PMID 16924149.
    11. Jump up^ "New Protocol Gives Parvo Puppies a Fighting Chance When Owners Can’t Afford Hospitalization". College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
    12. Jump up^ Carmichael L (2005). "An annotated historical account of canine parvovirus". J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health. 52 (7–8): 303–11. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2005.00868.x. PMID 16316389.
    13. ^ Jump up to:a b Carter, G.R.; Wise, D.J. (2004). "Parvoviridae". A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. IVIS. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
    14. ^ Jump up to:a b Shackelton LA, Parrish CR, Truyen U, Holmes EC (2005). "High rate of viral evolution associated with the emergence of carnivore parvovirus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (2): 379–384. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406765102. PMC 544290[​IMG]. PMID 15626758.
    15. Jump up^ Gamoh K, Senda M, Inoue Y, Itoh O (2005). "Efficacy of an inactivated feline panleucopenia virus vaccine against a canine parvovirus isolated from a domestic cat". Vet. Rec. 157 (10): 285–7. PMID 16157570.
    16. Jump up^ Martella V, Cavalli A, Decaro N, Elia G, Desario C, Campolo M, Bozzo G, Tarsitano E, Buonavoglia C (2005). "Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies". Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12 (10): 1243–5. doi:10.1128/CDLI.12.10.1243-1245.2005. PMC 1247831[​IMG]. PMID 16210491.
    17. Jump up^ Decaro N, Martella V, Desario C, Bellacicco A, Camero M, Manna L, d'Aloja D, Buonavoglia C (2006). "First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in pups with haemorrhagic enteritis in Spain". J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health. 53 (10): 468–72. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00974.x. PMID 17123424.
    18. ^ Jump up to:a b Nelson, Richard W.; Couto, C. Guillermo (1998). Small Animal Internal Medicine (2nd ed.). Mosby. ISBN 0-8151-6351-7.
    19. Jump up^ Lobetti, Remo (2003). "Canine Parvovirus and Distemper". Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
    20. ^ Jump up to:a b "Canine Parvovirus". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-22.
    21. Jump up^ Schatzberg, S.J.; N.J. Haley; S.C. Bar; A. deLahunta; J.N. Kornegay; N.J.H. Sharp (2002). Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification Of Parvoviral DNA From The Brains Of Dogs And Cats With Cerebellar Hypoplasia. ACVIM 2002. Cornell University Hospital for Animals, Ithaca, NY; College of Vet Med, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    22. Jump up^ ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.050.1.01. Parvovirus. In: ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA [1]
    23. Jump up^ Truyen U (2006). "Evolution of canine parvovirus—a need for new vaccines?". Vet. Microbiol. 117 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.003. PMID 16765539.
    24. Jump up^ Shackelton L, Parrish C, Truyen U, Holmes E (2005). "High rate of viral evolution associated with the emergence of carnivore parvovirus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (2): 379–84. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406765102. PMC 544290[​IMG]. PMID 15626758.
    25. Jump up^ Horiuchi M, Yamaguchi Y, Gojobori T, Mochizuki M, Nagasawa H, Toyoda Y, Ishiguro N, Shinagawa M (1998). "Differences in the evolutionary pattern of feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus". Virology. 249 (2): 440–52. doi:10.1006/viro.1998.9335. PMID 9791034.
    26. Jump up^ Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases, Carmichael L. (Ed.) International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2000; A0106.0100
    27. Jump up^ Ikeda, Y; Mochizuki M; Naito R; Nakamura K; Miyazawa T; Mikami T; Takahashi E. (2000-12-05). "Predominance of canine parvovirus (CPV) in unvaccinated cat populations and emergence of new antigenic types of CPVs in cats". Virology. 278 (1): 13–9. doi:10.1006/viro.2000.0653. PMID 11112475.
    28. Jump up^ Cavalli, Alessandra; Vito Martella; Costantina Desario; Michele Camero; Anna Lucia Bellacicco; Pasquale De Palo; Nicola Decaro; Gabriella Elia; Canio Buonavoglia (March 2008). "Evaluation of the Antigenic Relationships among Canine Parvovirus Type 2 Variants". Clin Vaccine Immunol. 15 (3): 534–9. doi:10.1128/CVI.00444-07. PMC 2268271[​IMG]. PMID 18160619.
    29. Jump up^ TV.com, Wood (August 23, 2008). "Virus killing Kent County dogs". WoodTV.com-Grand Rapids. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
    30. Jump up^ Spibey, N; Greenwood NM; Sutton D; Chalmers WS; Tarpey I. (2008-04-01). "Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus". Veterinary Microbiology. 128 (1–2): 48–55. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.09.015. PMID 18006253.
    31. Jump up^ Larson, Laurie J; Rd Schultz. "Do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c variant?". Vet Therapeutics. 9 (2): 94–101. PMID 18597247.
    32. Jump up^ Oh J, Ha G, Cho Y, Kim M, An D, Hwang K, Lim Y, Park B, Kang B, Song D (2006). "One-Step Immunochromatography Assay Kit for Detecting Antibodies to Canine Parvovirus". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (4): 520–4. doi:10.1128/CVI.13.4.520-524.2006. PMC 1459639[​IMG]. PMID 16603622.
    33. Jump up^ Schultz R (2006). "Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review". Vet. Microbiol. 117 (1): 75–9. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.013. PMID 16707236.
    34. Jump up^ "Information Sheet Canine Parvovirus". UC DAVIS. UC DAVIS. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
    Stavisky, Jenny. "Parvo Puppies." (2015): n. pag. British Small Animal Veterinary Congress 2015. Web. 31 Mar. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=6671632&pid=11452>.

    Van Schoor, Miranda, BVSc, BVSc (Hons), MMedVet ( Medicine). "Canine Parvovirus." Canine Parvovirus, World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2014 (2014): n. pag. Veterinary Information Network. Web. 19 Apr. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=7054783&pid=12886>.

    Veir, Julia K., DVM, PhD, DACVIM (SAIM). "Canine Parvovirus Type: Does It Impact Prevention, Diagnosis or Prognosis?" (2015): n. pag. ACVIM 2012 Fort Collins, CO, USA. Web. 31 Mar. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=5397196&pid=11356>.

    External links[edit]
     
  9. marke

    marke Well-Known Member

    I believe parvo got it's reputation when it was a new disease , and there were no dogs in the united states with any immunity to it , and vets didn't really understand how to treat it and they had no vaccine , it killed countless entire litters as the dam had no maternal immunity ......... a dog can obviously acquire a natural immunity to parvo , if they couldn't coyotes and wolves would be wiped out . a very small portion , the studies show almost none , personally I believe it is none , of coyotes and wolves have not been exposed to parvo ........... I think if you take your dog out , they are going to be exposed ....... wolves , foxes , coyotes , raccoons all carry canine parvo ........ I've read that a raccoon that survives parvo has lifelong immunity .........
     
  10. marke

    marke Well-Known Member

    I don't vaccinate my dogs for parvo beyond 3-4 months , but I would think it's entirely possible when I vaccinate the pups with modified live vaccines the adults may get a booster from the modified live virus shed by the pups ..........
     

Share This Page